Monday, August 24, 2020

Marks Spencer Essay Essay Example

Imprints Spencer Essay Example Imprints Spencer Essay Imprints Spencer Essay This task will look at how Marks Spencers systems have changed in the previous 10 years, from 1998 to 2008. These techniques incorporate administration procedure, corporate social duty, promoting system, serious methodology, and green methodology. In any case, the most significant methodology must be the recuperation plan of these ten years. Imprints Spencer is the biggest dress retailer in the UK. It is likewise a worldwide retailer which works around 760 stores in excess of 20 nations around the globe. The organization furnished quality items with moderate costs and they offer a board scope of items, for example, womenswear, menswear, childrenswear, babywear, and homewares. [Mintel, Retail Review March, 2008] In 1998, the organization was hit by falling deals and loss of piece of the pie. They endured 23% lessening in benefits, and by 2001 Marks and Spencer was not, at this point even in the Financial Times rundown of the best 500 worldwide organizations. It was even at risk for being taken over by another organization. The reasons of diminishing deals incorporate the disappointment of the changing needs of its center customers, exhausting structure and styling and in vogue contenders, for example, Gap and Zara. From that point forward, the organization utilized various methodologies to recuperate the organization lost. Before the finish of 2002, the piece of the overall industry of the attire showcase raised up forcefully to 14.8%. Imprints and Spencer had the option to bring back the clients calmly. Be that as it may, they encountered another fast drop in piece of the overall industry again in the 2 after years, which was somewhere in the range of 2003 and 2004. Luckily, the organizatio n got the piece of the overall industry in 2006 with solid exhibitions from menswear, womenswear and childrenwear. The Christmas deals even rose up by 9.2% in 2007, which was authoritatively recuperated. Along these lines, the inquiry regarding how the organization went down, how it recuperated and the nearness procedure will be found. [Marks Spencer yearly report, mintel 2002] Most importantly, the board methodology is included during these ten years. Imprints Spencer has been changed their chief load up ordinarily since1998. For instance, Luc Vandevelde enrolled as a director in 2000 and now, Stuart Rose is the present official executive since 2008. The authoritative structure has been changed to be compliment over these ten years They organization has been chopped down certain layers of the board since 1998. This would empower their representatives at the rest of the levels to be more mindful and have more responsibility than previously. Snappier choice could be made by this system which implies that the worker must be prepared to give valid justification for the choices that they make. In 2001, Marks Spencer made consideration on actualizing the progressions about adding exceptionally skilled retail authorities to the organization. Begun from 2000, the organization have set up a solid initiative group, which has built up an excellent advancement in its execution. They were attempting to improve the estimation of the center market. [Marks Spencer yearly report, mintel 2002] From 2003 to 2007, the quantity of Marks Spencer stores in the UK and Republic of Ireland has expanded from 335 to 472, which is a technique of market infiltration, as Marks Spencer advertised similar items to its energizing customers that are in the UK and Republic of Ireland for increment deals. What's more, propelling devotion card is another movement of market infiltration. (Ridder, K.,2003 , Mintel, 2007) A significant number of Marks and Spencers methodologies can be characterized by utilizing Ansoffs framework, which is one of the most helpful arranging help. This helps distinguishing elective methodologies dependent on items and markets. There are four fundamental development procedures of potential blends for items and markets. They are showcase execution, advertise advancement, item improvement and expansion. [Ansoffs Matrix, 2008] Item improvement is the procedure that included the advancement of new items for current clients. For example, the David Beckham scope of childrenswear, DB07 was propelled in 2004. A brand is an unfilled vessel you permeate with value.(Wally Olins, 1988) This statement identifies with Marks and Spencer, due to it was a chance of including worth, quality and authority by having David Beckham to be one of their extents, DB07. This helped the organization to pull in new clients in the new market, which is another case of Diversification. Market Development implies the way toward growing new markets for existing items. Focusing on new sections or extending new geological markets can accomplish the organization development. Be that as it may, Marks Spencer didn't enter any new land markets, since the offer of Brooks Brothers in 2000 and King Super Markets in 2006 for their recuperation plan. The organization attempted to concentrate on Europe, in light of the fact that the organization principally possessed stores in the UK, Republic of Ireland and establishments in Continental Europe. The quantities of stores in the Continental European nations are even extended from 82 to 131 altogether between July 2004 and July 2007. Web based shopping is each other action of market improvement. Imprints Spencer began propelling web based retailing in 1999. Before the year's over 2000, they had extended 3,000 items on their site. At that point, they continued building up their web based shopping through associations with various organizations, for example, MSN in 2000 and Amazon in 2005. (mintel, design online 2006) Broadening is the most hazardous procedures in the Ansoff network, as it implies the organization showcases new items to new clients, which may not be significant. For example, Marks Spencer had an extraordinary thought of employing a renowned football player, David Beckhamd and giving him his own apparel run. Their advertising center is around their garments extend which is most likely the correct thought because of contenders, for example, Sainsburys were presenting their own apparel go. The organization had joined their own style and picture which their rivals couldn't grasp to. Hence, it was a major positive development for the organization. [Marks Spencer yearly report 1999] The recuperation plan on 2000/01 was concentrating on UK retail business, chopping down expense and organizations and improving capital structure. The technique of concentrating on the UK retail business which included extending the developing organizations, for example, food, home and magnificence, yet in addition focusing on attire business, quicken of store reestablishment program for increasingly escalated utilization of room, and drawing nearer to the buyer, as far as better promoting correspondence. The chopping down unrewarding technique were included selling the business in Hong Kong to turn into an establishment, shutting down some unbeneficial abroad business and the unfruitful garments index and lessening cost of merchandise that by utilizing remote provider in Asia, which empowered to decrease deals cost and to raise benefit. After the recuperated of the organization, the organization was intending to drive their center business, for example, item, administration, conditi on and brand stretch. Likewise, they needed to build up their worldwide business. On the procedure of improving capital structure, the organization attempted to diminish the interest in inventories by 10%, which helped for a decrease of  £90million. Rivalries with different retailers, for example, Gap and Zara, Marks Spencer has been changed from dealing with their business in general, as opposed to alone product offerings, to Imprints Spencer began concentrating on the UK market and its center attire business in 2001. That year, George David, who is the organizer of Next named to make another womens style assortment for Marks Spencer in February, which called Per Una. This product offerings mirrored the first Marks Spencers estimations of value, worth and development just as the cutting edge prerequisites for style. In 2004, the organization recommended to alter it course of its garments. They needed to pull in more youthful clients and the organization purchased Per Una from George Davies for  £125m in September. [Marks Spencer yearly report, 2001and 2004] Imprints Spencer have changed a great deal in their childrenswear office in 2002. They have been utilizing high innovation of wellbeing and security testing on their scopes of childrenswear, which gave a superior quality to their items. As mintel report recommended that the greatest danger to the retail scene at that point (2002) was Marks and Spencer. Imprints and Spencer was extremely intriguing, as they have languished over period however they were even more a danger on the off chance that they start thinking responsibly and get things directly in childrens attire they could have a tremendous effect a lot greater than any outside retailers entering the commercial center. [Mintel report, 2002] Furthermore, since Marks and Spencer accepted that youngsters wear should included more characters and style, in February of 2002, they chose to sign David Beckham to help with their kid wear run. In September of 2002, Marks and Spencer presented their new fabric wear DB07 which gave a lift to with more grounded runs by extending and acquainting a quick design component with its Limited Collection run in 2006/07. [mintel, Retail Review UK March 2008] Since the emotional deals drop, Marks Spencer began spending an enormous measure of cash on their promoting procedure. In 1999, they spent around  £2 million on the promoting effort which included TV advertisement. In 2001, the companys Christmas promoting was propelled on the national TV. A portion of the superstars were included saying what Christmas intends to them and a portion of the Christmas present, items were highlighted either. In 2004, content showcasing was right off the bat utilized by Marks and Spencer, which means sending the organization brand name to target clients. Additionally, David Beckham was included for the teamed up assortment, DB07 at that year, which demonstrated a family men picture for the brand and suits the picture of Marks Spencer In 2005, a promoting effort Not simply Food was propelled in April and the advertisin

Saturday, August 22, 2020

International baccalaureate primary-year-program Essay

Global baccalaureate essential year-program - Essay Example My first very presentation to the educational plan of International Baccalaureate was at a data morning, when I was a piece of a course held in a decent framework school in suburbia of Mumbai, India. At present, I have an involvement with an IB school, showing the PYP: on account of my instruction. The International Baccalaureate (IB), once in the past known as the International Baccalaureate Organization, is a philanthropic foundation which gives instructive items to the universal network. Established in 1968 in Switzerland, IB's unique crucial to give educational plan to schools; providing food for offspring of Western representatives who voyaged oftentimes. The thought was to keep the educational plan steady between schools so as to serve the necessities of these understudies as they moved starting with one nation then onto the next. Today, the association controls three projects, which are accessible for buy by intrigued schools. The three projects of the IB schools are as per th e following: Primary Years Program(PYP) established in September 1997 provides food 3 †12 years Middle Years program(MYP) presented in 1994 caters 11 †16 years Diploma Program ( IBDP) acquainted in 1969 cooks with 16 †19 years I picked the IB PYP board as I was intrigued by the expansiveness of study, the potential for singular decision, the chance to create and follow my energy as expressed right off the bat and the consideration of CAS (inventiveness, activity and administration). Concerning this module and my experience, IB PYP has truly taken brimming with my consideration. I trust I will have the option to ingrain my substance of contemplations on paper and do appropriate equity to this module without being excessively inclination or basic. Catchphrases: Curriculum, International Baccalaureate Primary year program(IB PYP). Presentation The International Baccalaureate Primary Year Program is one of the numerous instructive projects of the International Baccalaurea te (IB) framework. The program provides food for understudies who are 3 to 11 years old. Its essential objective is to set up the understudies for the center year’s program of the IB framework ( 2009). Like any IB program the essential year program was done so as to improve the aptitudes of little youngsters to make them educated, mindful and asking. The essential objective of the program was to deliver youngsters who have intercultural comprehension and regard with the goal that they will have the option to help make a superior and serene world. This objective was to be accomplished on the grounds that the program was a transnational program that instilled the way of life and foundation of a few countries and individuals with no separation at all. Another objective of the program is to deliver understudies who comprehend the distinctions of others. These understudies will be urged to get dynamic, caring, and long lasting students.  There are ten characteristics that the Primary years program (PYP) plans to improve or create and these are: Inquirers, Knowledgeable, scholars, communicators, principled, receptive, mindful, Risk takers, adjusted, and intelligent. As said at an opportune time, the International Baccalaureate plans to create inquisitive, proficient and caring youngsters who help to make a superior and progressively serene world through intercultural comprehension and regard. To this end the association works with schools, governments and universal associations to create testing projects of worldwide instruction and thorough appraisal. These projects support understudies over the world to get dynamic, sympathetic and deep rooted students who comprehend that others, with their disparities, can likewise be correct. In any case, how powerful is the PYP? Have the points and motivations behind the PYP program truly been accomplished by and by? Are there speculations or studies that help the adequacy of the PYP program? This article asse sses and breaks down the points and reasons for the PYP program and how likely these projects are accomplished in pract

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Sample TOEFL Integrated Essay Portrait of a Woman in a White Bonnet

Sample TOEFL Integrated Essay Portrait of a Woman in a White Bonnet Sample TOEFL Integrated EssayThe QuestionThis integrated question is taken fromTest Threein theOfficial Guide to the TOEFL. I cant provide the lecture and reading here (they are copyrighted) but I highly recommend that you buy a copy of the book for yourself.Special Offer: TOEFL Essay Evaluation and ScoringYou can now sign up to have your practice essays evaluated and scored by the author of this page. This service is a great way to learn how you will do before test day and how you can best prepare for the big day. Sign up today.The Sample Essay The reading and the lecture are about “Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet,” a painting which may or may not be a work by Rembrandt. The author of the reading believes that the painting was not done by the Dutch master. The lecturer casts doubts on the claims made in the article. She thinks that it was, in fact, painted by Rembrandt. First of all, the author claims that the woman’s outfit is inconsistent, as it pair s a servant’s cap with a luxurious coat and fur collar. It is pointed out that Rembrandt would not have made such a mistake, as he paid very careful attention to detail. This argument is challenged by the lecturer. She says that the woman’s fur collar was added to the painting by another artist at a later date. She asserts that this was likely done to increase the value of the painting. Secondly, the author states that the depiction of light and shadow in the portrait is poorly done. He argues that Rembrandt would not have made the mistakes which are seen in this particular painting. This argument is rebutted in the lecture. The lecturer observes that when the aforementioned fur collar is removed, no mistakes with light and shadow remain. She notes that the original version of the painting is up to Rembrandt’s usual standards. Finally, the author mentions that the portrait was painted on a series of panels which were glued together. It is noted that while Rembrandt o ften painted on wood panels, there is no evidence that he ever used panels that were glued together in such a fashion. The lecturer casts doubt on this by arguing that the wood panel was expanded many years after the painting was originally done. She puts forth the idea that this is evidence that the painting was originally completed on just a single panel like other works by Rembrandt.Video Version

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Improving Communication With Non English Speaking Immigrants

As the country begins to grow with the influx of non-English speaking immigrants, the need to communicate has become a great need in our country. In the medical community it is especially important to be able to communicate with one another and be understood. Providing goals that will support communication, will foster the communication between patients and providers to give and receive the best optimal care. Medical providers can deliver better communication with non-English speaking patients by conducting a primary assessment, using appropriate interventions, and continuous monitoring. The world is made of billions of people from all walks of life. Each individual have diversity in areas of the spoken language, food, and religious†¦show more content†¦In the nursing process, nurses perform an assessment by taking data from a patient in all areas of the patient. This is the first step in nurse’s patient care. The assessment needs to center around the problem or diagn osis, which is ineffective communication. According to the Singleton (2013), there are three important areas to asses when communication is an issue. The areas that are important to assess in patients with language barriers are body language, literacy level, and cultural barriers. To be culturally sensitive it is essential to understand the important areas to assess. When working with non-English speaking patients it is important to keep this saying in mind, â€Å"it’s not what you say, it’s what you do†. When we are assessing the patient not only should we listen to what they are saying, but we should watch what their body is telling us. For example, the patient may nod his/her head implying that they understood, but the body may show the patient frowning their eyebrows or look away to someone else in confusion. These are body languages signs of confusion or not understanding what is communicated to them. Therefore, picking up on body cues will allow you to de termine if they are understanding what you are teaching. Along with watching body language we must also look at other areas of understanding. Literacy level plays a large role in patientsShow MoreRelatedEnglish is the Most Important School Subject for Students to Learn1007 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish is, almost certainly, the most important subject that a child can learn in school. Without knowing proper English, a child will not be able to communicate effectively with the English speaking nation. They would be shut off from education and other people in this country. A person who does not poses proper English limits his or her ability to achieve their highest potential. Knowledge of the English language is important to learn to be able to communicate with others, in the teaching of immigrantRead More English Should be Americas Official Language Essay1749 Words   |  7 PagesEnglish Should be Americas Official Language The government implementing English as the official legal language of America is imperative because a conformity of communication within our borders is needed to unify the vast diversity. Our mighty country was founded on providing all citizens with equality including inalienable rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The United States is a progressive nation that welcomes people from far and wide to come and savor the God-givenRead MoreThe Affordable Care Act Of The United States1607 Words   |  7 Pagescare, as these potential barriers could have serious consequences on their health if not addressed. In addition to lack of insurance coverage, there still remains considerable language and communication barriers as well. 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Research that focuses on health literacy, especially of minority populations, is important because groups such as immigrants, refugees, and non-native speakers of English are more likely to experience limited health literacy [3]. The impact of limited health literacy disproportionately affects lower socioeconomic and minority groups. Limited English proficiency contributes to a greater health-related risk and lower health literacy among Hispanics and other ethnic groups [4]. WhileRead MoreLanguage Bridges And Barriers Of Language1435 Words   |  6 Pages Language Bridges and Barriers Language can be a barrier or a bridge depending on how one facilitates its use. Being monolingual hinders communication with others who speak a different language while being bilingual can create a bridge between nations, ethnicities, and cultures. Unfortunately, this â€Å"bridge† is being threatened by legislation that impedes minorities, the first amendment, diversity, and the quality of education received in the U.S. Therefore, my stance is that the U.S. should notRead MoreStudents who are English language learners have been discriminated against and have had more1300 Words   |  6 Pages Students who are English language learners have been discriminated against and have had more challenges than any of the normal students in all school district around the United States. Teachers were not given the necessary tools and provided the necessary training to teach them. Teachers and Students encounter ESOL related problems almost daily. It has taken decades of tr ials, Acts, and Decrees for the United States to implement plans that not only teachers and administrations canRead MoreMental Health Among Latino Communities Essay1172 Words   |  5 Pagesis that by comparison, Foreign-born Latinos reported having lower rates of psychological disorders compared with those born in the United States. Due to the counterintuitive finding that immigrants report better physical and mental health outcomes compared to their U.S. born peers despite the fact that immigrants are, in general, more likely to experience poorer socioeconomic conditions, have less education, and are unfamiliar with the new environment. (Matsumoto Juang, 2016.) In contrast, NativeRead MoreThe Immigration Of The United States1382 Words   |  6 Pagesbeing done when immigrants are not allowed in this country. Immigrants often leave their native land to escape some sort of tragedy, whether it is gang violence or drastic unemployment, it cannot go unnoticed. America was built on a melting pot heritage, but now America is turning away immigrants with no hesitation and is not upholding the very heritage it was built upon. America claims to embrace diversity but fails to provide adequate support to legal immigrants. Some legal immigrants struggle to obtainRead MoreEssay on Multicultural Education1681 Words   |  7 Pageshomes who had limited English-speaking ability† (Millward,1999:47). Moreover, in 1974, the Supreme Court ruled in Lau vs. Nichols (a class action suit brought on behalf of Chinese-speaking children in San Francisco) that English-limited children who were being taught in English â€Å"†¦were certain to find their classroom experiences totally incomprehensible and in no way meaningful† (Stevens,1999:108). In consequence, schools were instructed to give special help to non-English-speaking students in order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why the Versailles Treaty Failed to Bring Peace and Stability

Why the Versailles Treaty failed to bring peace and stability On June 28th 1919, the â€Å"Big Three†, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson, and David Lloyd George, on behalf of Great Britain, the United States, and France, had formulated a peace treaty called Versailles Treaty to end the four-year-long First Word War, establishing the famous â€Å"Versailles System†. The purpose of the system is to build a peaceful world dominated by the victor countries, such as Great Britain, the United States and France. Therefore, the treaty harshly punished the losing countries, like Germany, Austria, and Hungary, making them decline in power. Every country participated in the Paris Conference with its own goals, and all countries, especially the three biggest†¦show more content†¦Actually, the decline in power never means the decline in conflict. Suppression and punishment, without education, can never make a country give up the use of violent in a long time. At the same time, the pricey compensation aggravates the economic crisis d uring the Depression period in those defeated countries, because their economic powers were weaken by the pricey bill. That’s the partly reason why some losing countries, especially German, accepted Fascism, since their economy and industrial sector experienced economic depression in those years, and their governments were too weak to stand against the expansion of Fascism. By contraries, countries with powerful economic resources, like America, protected their democracy and government, getting rid of dictatorship and Fascism. In the second place, the Versailles Treaty was only a result of compromise for those victor countries, leaving none of them fully satisfied about the new world order set by the treaty. The bad negotiation also led to the Appeasement Policy, which indulged the military expansion of German. It is easily understand the losing countries felt dissatisfied about the treaty for they are unfairly punished. However, why those victor countries also didn’t support the system in many parts? To answer this question, people need to have a basic knowledge about what are they want to achieve in the conference. Actually, each country had their own unique perspective of the war, and asShow MoreRelatedEssay on A2 History Coursework1581 Words   |  7 Pagesfour passages and your own knowledge, asses the view that international diplomacy failed to achieve stability in Europe from 1919 to 1930. According to most of the interpretations, international diplomacy wasn’t the reason to why there was stability in Europe between 1919 to 1930. After the First World War many countries were unstable and economically drained. 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The Conflict of Women in 20th Century India Free Essays

Throughout recorded history, women the world over have been held to different standards than men. They have been consistently oppressed in nearly all aspects of life, from political to personal, public to private. In the 20th century, great strides have been taken to end this oppression and level the playing field. We will write a custom essay sample on The Conflict of Women in 20th Century India or any similar topic only for you Order Now In India however, a number of deeply rooted traditions have made this effort particularly difficult, and as a result, women’s triumphs over oppression in India are all the more intriguing. To understand the position women found themselves in at the dawn of the 20th century, one must have a general understanding of the numerous historical women’s conflicts unique to the Subcontinent. It took the overwhelming success of Gandhi’s nonviolent revolution to unite women politically and create the an atmosphere whereby women, empowered by the times, could take a stand for their equality. The 1970’s saw the beginning of a highly organized modern women’s movement in India. Violence against women was one of the main focuses of the movement. Harassment, wife-beating, rape, and â€Å"dowry deaths† were all too common, and police enforcement was ineffective as were most attempts at prosecution. Commonly called â€Å"atrocities against women†, these acts occurred frequently. Why then, if these events were happening so often, was there so much apathy towards them on the part of the courts and the police? To answer this question one must look back upon a history marked by religiously and culturally accepted forms of oppression such as female infanticide, polygamy, purdah and sati. Purdah, still practiced today in many Moslem societies, is the practice of covering a women in cloth to protect them from the gaze of non-family males, in order to maintain their purity. This practice became common in India in the days of the sultanate. From a traditional western perspective this is a very repressive requirement. Gandhi took a particular pleasure in bringing women out of purdah, and involving them in the political movements of the times. Sati is another story. Early British rule in India was careful to stay out of the traditions and private lives of the natives. They ruled indirectly, typically demanding monetary tribute from local leaders in exchange for allowing them to rule as they pleased. This philosophy changed dramatically under the governor-generalship of Lord William Cavendish Bentinck which began in 1828. He began a much more interventionist policy that included the an increase in transportation facilities, industrialized cloth production (which displaced the ancient commercial structure) and he abolished the ancient tradition of sati (female infanticide was also outlawed by the British). The last of which caused a great rift in India’s intellectuals and businessmen. Sati is an ancient Hindu tradition whereby a widow is burned in the cremation fire of her departed husband. This practice was abhorred by British missionaries and businessmen. However, to many of India’s intellectuals it was an act of bravery and dedication on the part of the widow, to be admired. This is evidenced by the first petition against the intervention, which stated, â€Å"Hindoo widows perform (sati), of their own accord and pleasure, and for the benefit of their Husbands’ souls and for their own, the sacrifice of self-immolation called Suttee (another spelling of sati)- which is not merely a sacred duty but a high priviledge†(Stein, p. 22). For those who did not take part in this practice, the life of a Hindu widow was a very restricted one. A census conducted in 1881 showed that one-fifth of all women were widows, so these restrictions were very important. The Dharmashashra of Manu (a Hindu text) talks about how a Brahmin widow should act stating, â€Å"†¦ but she may never mention the name of another man after her husband has died. (Stein, p. 94) As child brides were common in the Subcontinent, one often saw young widows unable by traditional law to remarry and make an attempt at a new life. Furthermore, they rarely had the education to support themselves. Education was historically bestowed solely upon the males. In the 19th century only the wealthiest of families sought after any sort of formal education for their female children, and there was no movement in the government to change this. â€Å"A survey of Madras found over 5000 girls enrolled in Indian language schools, as against 179,000 boys†(Stein p. 268). This lack of concern for the formal education of women exemplifies how their place in society was viewed. The treatment of high cast women was one of the first forms of oppression attacked by advocates of women’s rights. In the 1860’s action was taken by avid social reformer Madhav Govinda Ranade, who founded the Widow Re-marriage Association and the Deccan Education Society (which sought to increase young women’s educational facilities). Although Ranade challenged some of traditions that prevented the liberation of women, he was seen by many as a hypocrite, himself taking on a child bride after the death of his wife. Soon however women would take the reins in the battle for their own independence. A woman by the name of Ramabia is considered, â€Å"the first Indian Feminist to address other women directly about emancipation† (Stein, p. 275). She, like Ranade, was a member of the Brahman caste. She would go on to travel and study in England and later in America, where she wrote about the mistreatment of women in India. A converted Christian upon her return to India, Ramabia opened schools for high caste women. This effort, in conjunction with various projects Ramabia worked on for women, was far ahead of its time and it would take nearly a century before women would tightly bind together to formally resist oppression. Early in the 20th century women were forbidden to protest their condition or even to congregate to discuss the matter. This was a right even the lowest cast males, the untouchables, was bestowed. It was a common belief at the time, that free women would inevitably come to neglect their marital responsibilities. The Indian National Congress, led by Gandhi, was one of the first political organizations to actively include woman, even women formally in Purdah. Although these women mobilized formally in the name of nationalism, it was this extensive political activity that would become a catalyst for future self conscious feminism (a school of thought that was looked upon with great caution and fear). In 1917 the congress demanded that women be able to vote on the same basis as men, but these efforts to were for the progress of nationalism rather than exclusively for the improvement of women’s rights. The eventual partition and independence of India was seen as a tremendous success for passive resistance and the Gandhian way. In the decades to come a number of political movements would emerge that would utilize various forms of civil disobedience as their main form of protest. There was intense and organized women’s participation in these movements, as a result of their participation in the independence movement there was a clear precedent for this. In the 1960’s India saw the effects of dramatically improved agricultural techniques resulting from the new technology of the ‘Green Revolution’. However, these benefits did not come without a cost. Although food was more plentiful, farmers not wealthy enough to keep up with the technology got left in the dust. As a result women toiling on the land found themselves worse off than ever before. There were also severe environmental implications of the sudden and extensive use of technology. In response a number of movements emerged. Within these movements (such as the Marxist, the Farmers, and the Environmental movements) unified groups of women emerged and took on unprecedented responsibility. They actively and enthusiastically sought after redistribution of land and wages. The first group to cross over and actively seek out women’s liberation was an organization of â€Å"new Marxists† called Magowa. Starting in Maharashtra, which would become the center for liberation activity, they wrote their second publication on the, â€Å"varied facets of women’s oppression in India†(Omvedt p. 76). The population base of this movement was the rural and the toiling. This was important because the women of this group were already organized, although not all of these organizations with this base turned their focus toward feminist causes. 1974 was a pivotal year for the movement. Not only did it see the founding of POW (the Progressive Organization of Women), but it was the year that the official Status of Women Commission published their report, Towards Equality, on women’s low and ever decreasing status in Indian society. This paper would add much fuel to the impending fire and validate it to the mainstream population. There were large conferences in Pune and Trivandrum in 1975 on women’s issues further bringing the movement into the mainstream. Many autonomous groups popped up with different agendas and issues. Some of the common issues included; the division of housework, party politics, rape, and â€Å"dowry deaths†. The issues of violence, popularly called â€Å"atrocities against women† became the centerpiece of the movement in the early eighties and the cause for its expansion. A forum against rape in Bombay led to the creation of the Forum Against Atrocities on Women, or the FAOW. All over India these feminist groups were emerging. There constituencies came to included women from all walks of life No longer did women simply motivate toward third party objectives, they now fought for their own rights as the largest oppressed group in the nation. From an unanswerable and most often unaddressed problem in the 1800’s, to a hotly contested issue on the cutting edge of politics in modern times, the conflict over women’s rights in India has come full circle in one century. Although feminist sentiments existed throughout, it took active female inclusion in the political world by Gandhi’s independence movement to give their voices strength and to eventually have them heard. There was avid political activity on the part of women and female organizations leading up to the 1947 split. The effectiveness of this work foreshadowed the influence women could have on politics when working together, and paved the way for the modern women’s movement that began in the 1970’s. Unfortunately, even at the end of the eighties â€Å"atrocities against women† were still occurring and they continue to occur today, but the change in attitude and the end of apathy that has emerged over the last century surely gives promise that someday there could truly be equality for women in India, and the world over. How to cite The Conflict of Women in 20th Century India, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Iran and Region

Introduction Iran has turned out to be one of the major players as regards to the Gulf security and stability. This means that its role as a key player in the region can no longer be disregarded. Scholars observe that the 1979 revolution that took place in various states in the Middle East shaped the geo-politics of the region.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Iran emerged strong from the revolution, which gave it an advantage in terms of political influence. The state was able to export its ideas to other countries, which threatened the survival of other powerful states in the region, such as Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the region was transformed by the Iran-Iraq war, as well as the nuclear crisis witnessed in Iran (Jorisch 12). In 1971, Iran acquired three islands belonging to UAE and it is reluctant to negotiate over the islands. As one w ay of flexing its muscles, Iran has been trying to influence the region politically, culturally and socially through vigilant restructuring and scheduling. Through this, it has been attempting to spread its ideas in the Gulf region. The state has been mobilizing the revolutionary agents and coordinating the activities of sleeper cells in the neighbouring states such as Syria and Lebanon. These activities took effect after president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad took power in 2005. It should be noted that by 1979, the Shah, who enjoyed close diplomatic ties with the US, ruled Iran. In the same year, the Shah was overthrown by an Islamic radical group, which turned Iran into an Islamic state ruled by a spiritual leader referred to as the Ayatollah. The spiritual leaders were keen to spread Islamic values all over the region. Since then, Iran has been reluctant to accept western values, which insist that women are to be treated in the same way as men. Therefore, the state has always assisted oth er groups trying to fight the west. It is not surprising that Iran has been funding illegal groups and unpopular regimes that are undemocratic.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This paper will therefore evaluate the interests of Iran in the Gulf region and its position in the international system. The paper will analyze how Iran has been funding and supporting the activities of the Hezbollah, which is against the wishes of the international community. In this case, it should be noted that Iran does not fund the Hezbollah out of good will but its main aim is to achieve the national interests. In this case, states are always interested in national interests implying that in whatever they do, they must satisfy their wishes and desires. The Syrian Ally For many years, Iran has always sided with Syria over important issues affecting the region and the world. Furthermore, the t wo states have always shared strong military and financial links. Through this partnership, the two states have been able to achieve similar goals such as resisting the requests related to democracy from the international community (Ranstorp 31). The two states have been accused variously for violating human rights and freedoms but nothing has changed since then. For instance, when the Syrian populace rose to challenge the government for being inhuman and indifferent to the needs of the people, the highest decision making organ in the Mullah regime in Tehran promised to provide logistical support to the distressed Alawite regime. The Tehran organ promised to help the Alawite regime to quell violence that had rocked various cities. Tehran could not let the Bashar al-Assad regime go since it is very important as far as Tehran’s interests are concerned. Tehran aspires to maintain its role in the Gulf region and make sure that al-Assad’s regime remains in power in order to further the interests of Hezbollah and other affiliates of Iranian-Palestinian organizations. By scrutinizing the foreign policies of Iran towards neighbouring states, one is able to note that the state is concerned about support for Syria in order to safeguard the interests of Hezbollah, which has the same aims as those of Iran. In Iran, the government has always claimed that the international community is destabilizing the government of Syria for undisclosed reasons.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, the Iranian government has assured Syria of its support in order to safeguard the Hezbollah. The two states that is, Syria and Iran, signed a mutual agreement promising to help each other economically and militarily. Following the agreement, the Iranian government sent out a number of revolutionary agents to the cities of Syr ia to monitor the progress of the revolution. The main aim of Iran is to ensure that the ongoing revolution does not succeed. Restoration of democracy would allow foreigners to establish businesses and other organizations in Syria, which would make it hard for the Hezbollah and Iran to achieve their missions. Democracy would expose the state to foreign domination and the values of Islam would be interfered with, something that both the Iranian government and the Hezbollah highly detest. Following this, the Iranian authorities coordinated with the security forces of Syria to dislodge any plans of the protesters. Iran realized that Syria alone could not provide the necessary protection to the Hezbollah. Therefore, it had to intervene in order to safeguard its regional interests, which are closely related to those of the Hezbollah (Sankari 11). Iran has been keen to ensure that Syria succeeds in pushing aside the requests of the population. Assad entered into a bilateral agreement with the Iran’s Supreme Guide in order to end the riots. The Iranian government accepted to pay the military for six months and provide weapons when necessary. This was aimed at security the economy of Syria since the state was spending too much on weapons and the salaries of soldiers. In August 2011, the government of Iran was shown a green light when it was permitted to construct a military base near the Latakia airport. This was aimed at easing the process of transferring weapons from Tehran to Damascus. The Iranian government promised the Syrian regime to respond to any attacks from Israel, as well as from other enemies.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of Iranian forces in Syria has in fact complicated the Middle East conflict system. Other states are unwilling to participate in toppling the Assad administration since Iran would retaliate. Iran perceives the west as being behind the instabilities witnessed in Syria. The Gulf States have come to the realization that Iran is willing and is ready to destabilize the region using the Syrian revolution. The states have not been able to intervene either peacefully or military due to the presence of Iran. In fact, Iran is more cautious because the international community has taken sides in the matter. In fact, the Iranian regime can resist the Gulf pressure but it cannot withstand the pressure from the American and European powers. It can be observed that Iran will have to accept changes in the Syrian administration and prepare to face sanctions from the international community in case China and Russia fail to veto the decision of other powers (Saad-Ghorayeb 90). Lebanese All y Iran has always employed a regional policy as regards to Lebanon and Hezbollah. In other words, the relationship between Iran and Hezbollah population in Lebanon depends on the politics of the Gulf region. Iran has some fears over the consequences left by interior and exterior actors on the Hezbollah. Iran is much concerned about the indictment of Lebanon by the special tribunal over the murder of the former premier Rafiq Hariri, the plans concerning Hezbollah weapons in the region, and the representation of the Hezbollah in the Lebanon government. There is a looming conflict between the Hezbollah and other parties regarding the March 8 and 14 coalition agreements. These interests have led Iran to devise methods that would help the Hezbollah counter the enemies. The Iranian Mullahs established the Hezbollah in Lebanon in 1980s. Since then the foreign Policies of Iran towards Lebanon, especially towards the party of God, has been influenced by the presence of Hezbollah. Iran consid ers Hezbollah as its surrogate in the Lebanese state and the Gulf region as a whole. The Iranian administrations have always used the Hezbollah to export the Shea values and beliefs to other states in the region (Hala 89). In other words, Iran has been able to establish itself as one of the powerful states in the region due to the presence of Hezbollah in various parts of the region. Through the Hezbollah, Iran has achieved its major goals and is intending to capitalize on the presence of the community in various parts to further its interests. Research shows that there are many Iranian Shiites in the Gulf region, who are closely linked to the Hezbollah. In countries where the Hezbollah controls decision-making, the Iranian government has always pledged support and to eliminate any form of opposition emanating from within or without the state boundaries. The international community, Israel in particular, has always tried to neutralize and challenge the power of Hezbollah in various parts of the region. Israel is keen to prevent a war similar to that, which took place in 2006 that damaged Israeli superiority and undermined the image of its disincentive capacities. Iran and Hezbollah in the Gulf Region Previous inconsistencies between Israel and Hezbollah, as well as topical regional revolutions have made Iran to come up with methods that would strengthen the Hezbollah on all fronts. Furthermore, the state of Iran is preparing for a counter attack in case the international community decides to strike, particularly due to its nuclear energy strategy. In places such as Lebanon and Bekaa valley, the government of Iran established military bases and dug underground tunnels that would be used to store weapons (Qassem 24). In Lebanon, Iranian government has been training military forces, which would be used to resist any incursion to the Hezbollah community. In fact, Hezbollah members have been trained on how they can launch a missile, as well as how to make bombs. Da ta reveals that more than 1600 Hezbollah extremists were taken to Iran to participate in military training with the revolutionary agents. Even after receiving sanctions from the international community, Iran has always supported the activities of the Hezbollah in the Gulf region. For instance, Iran has been supplying the Hezbollah in various regions with the communication and wiretapping equipments. In fact, these instruments have been installed in various parts of Lebanon to help contain any external aggression. The houses of experts and diplomats working in various countries have been targeted mostly. Iran is determined to maintain the supremacy of Hezbollah in the region since it has reinforced its role in Southern Lebanon, by providing weapons and other equipments of war. Furthermore, funds have also been availed to the Hezbollah in order to acquire properties in places considered to be inhabited by Christians. These places would be converted to military bases when the time come s. Iran has been influencing its neighbours to accept the position and activities of the Hezbollah in the region. In Lebanon, Iran has always interfered with political processes by proving technical information and resources to the Hezbollah candidates. In the international system, Iran encourages the Hezbollah to oppose the decision of the international organizations. For instance, it requested the Lebanese government to question the credibility of the Special Tribunal put in place by the ICC to investigate the government of Lebanon. In Lebanon still, the Iranian authorities have emerged to help the Hezbollah contain the influence of the Lebanese Sunni leader Saad Hariri (Harik 31). The officials of Iran have urged the Lebanese Hezbollah to expose the weaknesses of Hariri in order to cut him from the international community, which provides funds and knowledge to him. In Lebanon, Iran requested the Hezbollah officials to embrace the Sunni leaders in order to form a strong relationsh ip that would withstand the national and the international pressure. Following this, the Hezbollah incorporated the leader of Murabitun and the president of the National Nasserist Organization into their plans. This was aimed at expanding the political influence of the Hezbollah. Furthermore, this would allow the Hezbollah to acquire many cabinet positions. This benefit of collaborating with the Murabitun was realized when the Hezbollah vice director of military intelligence was given the post of the director general in charge of general security (Nizar 4). The president opposed this move but the Hezbollah won the seat since the majority supported it. For the last few decades, the Iran-Hezbollah relationship in the Gulf region has shaped the security and political dynamics. Hezbollah is a radical group, a political party and a theological pressure group in the Gulf region. It managed to bring together various factions in an attempt to suppress the power of the United States and Isra el in the region. Middle East scholars such as Cambanis observe that people in the region have been influenced by the Hezbollah ideas and are willing to die for the group’s apocalyptic values. Other observers such as Samaha, who is the Lebanon’s minister of information, claim that Hezbollah is a legal group that tries to fight for the rights of the Muslims in the region. Such observers claim that the role of Hezbollah and Iran is to defend the Arab land against external aggressors such as Israel. A report released in Beirut in 2006 claimed that the majority of Lebanese support the activities of the Hezbollah. Hezbollah has continued to shape the foreign policies of many states including the US. In the US, Hezbollah is viewed as a terrorist group that should not be tolerated in the world. In 2011 for instance, the bipartisan members of the congress came up with a bill referred to as the Hezbollah Anti-Terrorism Act. The act would ensure that no American Aid reaches the Hezbollah. In Europe, the European Union parliament treats the Hezbollah in the same way as the Hamas. In other words, the two groups are viewed as terrorist groups. However, the European powers such as Britain, Spain and France have been reluctant to slap sanctions to the group since it would derail the Middle East peace talks. Therefore, it can be observed that the activities of the group have been felt globally. What is clear is that various regions view the activities of the group differently. The neighbouring states such as Iran, Syria and Lebanon perceive the Hezbollah group as a blessing to the region since it fights for the rights of Muslims. In other parts, the group’s activities are illegal (Norton 3). Conclusion It can be concluded that Iran has always supported the activities of the Hezbollah mainly because it has the same interests as those of Iran. The main objective of the two is to dominate the Gulf region by keeping away the influence of Israel and the west. Middle East states such as Iran, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine believe that Israel is the problem. The states accuse the west for planting Israel in the region yet they did not participate in dispersing the Jews during the Second World War. Therefore, the relationship between Iran and the Hezbollah is expected to persist as long as the western countries continue supporting Israel. Works Cited Hala, Jaber. Hezbollah. Colombia: Columbia University Press, 1997. Print. Harik, Palmer. Hezbollah: The Changing Face of Terrorism. New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006. Print. Jorisch, Avi. Beacon of Hatred: Inside Hizballahs Al-Manar Television. Washington: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2004. Print. Nizar, Hamzeh. In The Path of Hezbollah. Damascus: Syracuse University Press, 2004. Print. Norton, Richard. Hezbollah of Lebanon: Extremist Ideals vs. Mundane Politics. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2000. Print Norton, Richard. Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton: Princeton Universi ty Press, 2007. Print. Qassem, Naim. Hizbullah: The Story from Within. Damascus: Saqi Books, 2005. Print. Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb’Allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. Print. Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal. Hizbullah: Politics and Religion. London: Pluto Press, 2001. Print. Sankari, Jamal. Fadlallah: The Making of a Radical Shi’ite Leader. Damascus: Saqi Books, 2005. Print. This essay on Iran and Region-wide backing of Hezbollah was written and submitted by user Larissa Woods to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.